Jinxin Liu, one of the Allen School’s most recent doctoral graduates, found that antibiotic resistant E. coli are distributed unevenly in soil samples for 14 Washington state dairies. He also monitored E. coli at the WSU dairy and learned that the density of bacteria did not change much from season to season. Together, these findings show that because some locations on farms have predictably greater numbers of antibiotic resistant bacteria, these areas present a greater chance of transmission to other animals and people. His findings could provide new opportunities for reducing the risk of transmission, including improvements to handling waste from areas with higher levels of antibiotic resistant bacteria.